Disrecognized Space

agressi sunt mare tenebrarum, quid in eo esset exploraturi

The Internet – Internet Communications Annotated Bibliography

Module 1

Dodge, M (2004). An Atlas of Cyberspaces. Retrieved 3 Dec 2007 from http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/

Martin Dodge, a geography lecturer, presents different ways of mapping the internet, providing fundamentally diverse methods of conceptualising and representing the internet, such as geographical, network connections, and how these have changed (the site is no longer updated, but gives data from 1997 to 2004). It is enlightening to see the internet represented by, for example, the size of data flows, or the projected state of the internet in 2015 shown as a cartogram (where the country is distorted in size based on the number of expected users in that country). In the latter case, the two largest internet using countries by far are India and Russia. Australia, by contrast, is tiny.

In effect, this site presents the internet as an intersecting series of spaces, the size of which changes depending on chosen parameters – is the measure internet speed, or number of connections, for example? While the internet itself is a whole, people regularly only use a small part of it and how they view that part is dependent on their own needs, the access they have and, to an extent, their familiarity with the internet and its parts. This site shows the fundamentally different ways users can view that experience, and lead one to appreciate the many and varied uses of “internet space”, since one is so often caught up in the smaller space that one tends to frequent, just as in the real world, familiar geographical spaces are smaller than the whole world, and better known.

Related concepts: cyberspace is informationally created ‘space’; metaphors of use and communication differentiation.

Durst, R C., Feighery, P D., Scott, K L. Why not use the Standard Internet Suite for the Interplanetary Internet?. Retrieved 15 Jan 2008 from http://www.ipnsig.org/reports/TCP_IP.pdf

Retrieved from the Interplanetary Internet Project page (http://www.ipnsig.org/home.htm) the goal of which was to “define the architecture and protocols necessary to permit interoperation of the Internet resident on Earth with other remotely located internets resident on other planets or spacecraft in transit” (the site has not been updated since 2004). This document uses the example of communicating with Mars as a case study of the problems of using current internet protocols. Various problems are mentioned: the speed of light delay, the inability to maintain continuous communication, asymmetric data rates (currently much higher in spacecraft than in ADSL, for example) and high signal to noise ratio. As an example of the difficulties encountered, an FTP connection takes eight exchanges before the file starts to be sent. Using a delay time of eight minutes (the minimum for Mars), this represents a delay of more than an hour. The authors conclude that current, timing-dependent, aspects of internet protocols are not suitable for extreme long distance communication.

While the interest in space exploration and colonisation has cooled in recent decades, this Project indicates the need to consider where the internet is going (physically as well as in terms of functioning) and to plan ahead for foreseeable changes. Internet history has shown that changes cannot always be planned for, but without the backbone of open protocols and basic standards, those unexpected changes cannot work successfully.

This is an example of “blue sky thinking” (literally) of the sort that is so important to the future development of the internet.

Related concepts: client-server two way interactions; the challenge of ‘fast’ data.

Ebbs, G & Horey, J (1995). The Australian Internet Book (2nd ed.). Woodslane Press, NSW.

This book is far from up to date in the fast paced world of the internet, yet it is a valuable resource in terms of history as well as understanding the way the internet works.

It covers aspects of the internet which are almost gone today, such as telnet, as well as parts that have effectively disappeared (gopher, archie, jughead, and veronica, for example), but other aspects are still relevant (email, FTP, and IRC, for example).

How to set up an internet account, with its explanation of modem AT commands, and all the technical demands of setting up dialler software make one aware of the protocols behind actually establishing a connection and communicating with other nodes, and is still worthwhile (especially for troubleshooting) in these days when operating systems perform most of this setup automatically.

Published in the wake of the sudden explosion of the WWW, its explanation of the web, browsers, bookmarking, searching and so forth is still comprehensive (and salutary: the search engine of choice is Lycos, the browser Netscape 1, the email client Eudora). HTML coding is explained, and this is unchanged (though the standard has since been expanded).

The book is easy to read, but doesn’t shirk from technical details where necessary. It’s nostalgic to dip into, but it is also a reminder of how big the internet is, how it works, and how the various standards and software function together.

Related concepts: effective internet communication combines technical and communicative competence; netiquette; threading; human-computer interfaces.

Internet History. (1992) Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 from http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/

A presentation at the Computer History Museum detailing highlights of the development and growth of the internet from 1962 to 1992. Along with images of historical interest, the change from a university experiment in connecting computers through to the rise of the World Wide Web, this site provides a good, if brief, historical overview of where the internet came from and how it has changed.

The site provides good explanations of key points in the history of the internet, along with useful illustrations of people and devices (the diagram for 1969 showing the ARPANET with both of its nodes is fascinating!). This site would be useful for anyone wanting to quickly assess the internet’s history, and to understand how it has developed both in terms of planning (such as protocols and open standards) as well as unplanned changes (the sudden growth of the graphical World Wide Web, for instance). It provides a view of the historical placement of the internet we have today, its changes, improvements and the often very small groups who have provided so much of that direction.

While no author is specified for this timeline, the Computer History Museum has comprehensive information on its website about its members, mission and background.

Related concepts: the persistence of history; the paradox of the World Wide Web; virtually a library?

Kehoe, B P. (1992). Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner’s Guide to the Internet. Retrieved 3 Dec 2007 from http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_toc.html

Like a number of references here this is old by internet standards, but the technical information it provides on such topics as email, FTP and newsgroups is still relevant and unchanged (though fewer people will be using them through command line interfaces and UNIX machines).

Written prior to the WWW, this guide concentrates on the other parts of the internet that existed at that time and, mostly, still do today. It is both an explanation of how those protocols developed and function, as well as the social aspect of “netiquette” – how to behave and be a good cybercitizen.

Almost all of this technical background is hidden from today’s internet users, but a knowledge of how files and emails are encoded and transmitted (and, more importantly, received!) helps to understand the functioning of the internet, as well as assisting in troubleshooting.

Netiquette, as a series of self-controlled and largely randomly developed rules, is still an ongoing issue. Like any community, new users enter it who are unaware, or choose to ignore, the unwritten societal rules (which, often, are in flux anyway).

Sadly, the document is poorly proofread at times – it appears to have been scanned from other source with words often missing, though the meaning is usually decipherable.

Related concepts: effective internet communication combines technical and communicative competence; netiquette; communication and information are related.

Leiner, B M., Cerf, V G., Clark, D D., Kahn, R E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D C., Postel, J. Roberts, L G., Wolff, S. (2003). A Brief History of the Internet (3.32). Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 from http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml

This is a history of the internet from its beginnings in 1962, which has the imprimatur of being written by the people who created it.

The authors consider four aspects of the development of the internet: technological; operating and managing the network; the social aspect relating to the users; and the more recent commercialisation of the internet.

The growth of the internet is considered from the theoretical discussions of packet switching for networking, rather than circuit switching (as in telephone lines where a discrete one-to-one direct connection has to be established and maintained), and how this led to the first “internet” when two university computers were connected, through to the rapid expansion across multiple worldwide networks.

The authors are also very clear about how the academic origin of the internet has fundamentally influenced the way it is today, even with the growing commercialisation of it (from network providers, from hardware and software vendors, as well as – more recently – businesses using it) so that the open architecture and freely published standards are available to all.

The social aspect of the internet is also detailed: how email was the first “killer app” that saw increased usage, through to the development of the World Wide Web that saw an explosion in users not from academic, military or industrial backgrounds.

Be prepared to cope with a large number of acronyms, names and dates which can occasionally become confusing, but this document provides a well-documented history of how the internet we have today grew out of both planned processes (such as developing packet switching technology) as well as unplanned (such as the increase of IP addresses beyond the initial 256 that were thought to be the required number, or that the term “internet” was only officially defined in 1995).

It also explains the technical underpinnings, and how they work so well together that they can – for the most part – be ignored by end users so we have “the enormous growth of all kinds of “people-to-people” traffic.” Note that in that phrase, the medium has disappeared.

Related concepts: asynchonicity; automation; the relationship of data to meta-data.

Santovic, M (2007). Decoding Internet Attachments – A Tutorial. Retrieved 3 Dec 2007 from http://pages.prodigy.net/michael_santovec/decode.htm

Not so much a tutorial as a history of attachment encoding methods, how email readers handle these, and what can go wrong. After an introduction to the reason for encoding, various methods are covered in detail. The details of each encoding method, plus an example of each is given, which is helpful if you ever need to identify what sort of attachment you have. Uuencode (I particularly remember the “pleasures” of downloading multipart Uuencoded messages and decoding them, before the whole process became integrated into email clients), MIME, Base64, and Quoted-Printable are covered, as well as Binhex (a Macintosh format) and yEnc (interestingly, there was a period when yEnc was popular on newsgroups, but I can’t remember the last time I saw this encoding).

The article also covers some more obscure methods as well, ensuring that just about any attachment can be recognised, and also includes a section on compression methods.. The article also provides information on undertaking this task, and opening problematic attachments, as well as the issue of viruses.

While most email clients these days make the encoding and decoding transparent to the user, Mr Santovic provides a lengthy list of reasons why the process can go wrong, and steps that can be taken in these cases. These issues are divided into problems with the attachment itself, problems with varying email clients handling attachments differently, and problems with how various service providers handle such messages.

Considering the numerous potential problems, it seems a minor miracle that attachments can ever be sent successfully, but the standards underlying email (“The nice thing about Standards is there are so many to choose from” points out Mr Santovic) ensure that, in most cases that the information is sent and received correctly. Where it is not, this page provides a comprehensive trouble shooting resource.

Related concepts: effective internet communication combines technical and communicative competence; automation.

Module 2

Cunliffe, R. (2006). Investigating the Use and Usefulness of Instant Messaging in an Elementary Statistics Course. Retrieved 18 Dec 2007 from http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/17/6E4_CUNL.pdf

This report details a study of a pilot project using instant messaging (IM) in two first year university Statistics classes. The outcomes were very positive, and it seems that IM was a very valuable resource for these students in order to network with each other, and to seek assistance from their lecturer and tutor. IM was seen as quicker than email, but less intrusive than a telephone call, and also had the advantage of being able to contact university staff out of hours. It is interesting to note a number of comments relating to how students felt more comfortable about this method of contact as opposed to face to face contact (“It can be quite scary talking to your lecturer face to face.”). The report also notes “The informality and semi-anonymity of IM provided a far less intimidating environment for students to ask for help”. Of the group that responded to the survey 73% were aged 18-21, and the bulk were already familiar with IM (4 out of 5 were already using IM). Elsewhere, the report notes that about 200,000 New Zealanders use MSN Messenger every day, with two thirds of these being under 30.

The report uses a specific non-randomised group of subjects, but it is interesting to speculate to what extent IM can empower communication in younger age groups, particularly since these would be the groups that would have more issues with “authority” figures. Other factors are certainly at work as well (peer group pressures, for example), but this report raises questions about how communication in cyberspace, while ostensibly being an extension of previous technology (IM as telephone substitute), actually creates new methods of their own.

It should also be noted that the actual survey questions, nor details of responses, are not provided in the report.

Related concepts: your audience’s use of communication; the invisibility of difference; metaphors of use and communication differentiation; the impact of text-based real-time chat; active communication generates identity awareness.

Shiu, A. & Lenhart, A. (2004). How Americans use instant messaging. Retrieved 18 Dec 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Instantmessage_Report.pdf

This document is a snapshot of Instant Messaging (IM) use amongst Americans (actually, only the USA). While its findings cannot directly be extrapolated to other countries, the borderless nature of the internet makes it reasonable to assume that broadly similar findings would occur in broadly similar countries (such as Australia).

The report finds IM being used by slightly less than half of internet users, though usage had increased since the last survey, with email still being the preferred method of internet contact. Different groups of users are clear however, with nearly half of 18-27 year olds using IM more than email. The users of IM broadly break down into two groups: those who use it at work, and those who use it for social networking (which remains the main use).

Interestingly, ICQ (the program selected for study during Module 2) was only used by 6% of users, which shows how quickly clients can fall out of favour (though it was nearly twice as popular amongst university users than the general population).

The survey shows how technologies on the internet can be redefined by its users, and also how variant groups create different users for that technology. Younger users, especially those defined as Gen Y, have embraced IM, using it often in preference to email, and for purposes such as sending files, images and links to one another.

Related concepts: the impact of text-based real-time chat; active communication generates identity awareness; identity and location.

Module 3

Abrams, D. & Baecker, R. (1997). How People Use WWW Bookmarks. Retrieved 16 Jan 2008 from http://www.sigchi.org/chi97/proceedings/short-talk/da.htm

This document (part of the 1997 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems) discusses how users utilise bookmarks to organise their personal internet information space. The authors note many problems with information on the internet: it is unstructured and disordered (unlike a library, for example), it is polluted by unverified or incorrect pages, it is enormous, and there is no way of viewing all the information (search engines, for example, use their own particular algorithms to index only what they can access – the “deep web” remains problematic).

The authors find that bookmarks become useful as a way of providing some structure to this information, creating a context and (where bookmarks, in 99% of cases, exceed 35) a filing system, in order to overcome these problems. The users are effectively editing the information, and providing their own mapped spaces of relevance to them.

There are still problems with bookmarks: as their number increases, finding specific bookmarks becomes harder; bookmark titles are not always clear; bookmarks still require a user initiated method of organisation (interestingly, the survey found only 3% use an external bookmark organisation program).

This document is from 1997, but there is no reason to presume that the issues of information ordering and retrieval from the internet have lessened (indeed, the amount of information has significantly increased). The survey samples were very small, at least some of whom were experienced internet users, but this document is of use to those who want to understand how users try to manage the unordered information of the internet into some semblance of control.

Related concepts: the relationship of data to meta-data; communication is not complete upon receipt; cyberspace is informationally created ‘space’; information and attention.

Burstein, C D. (2006). Viewable with Any Browser. Retrieved 19 Dec 2007 from http://www.anybrowser.org/campaign/

This site is an effort to promote standards compliant web coding in order to make the web more accessible to all. Cari Burstein argues (and quotes Tim Berners-Lee to support her) that sites optimised for a particular browser alienate whatever part of the web browsing population is not using that browser.

Since HTML/XHTML is a published (though developing) standard there is no ostensible reason to use non-standard coding, especially where browsers are able to handle the full range of such coding. Unfortunately, many sites (WebCT and OASIS, to name only two) state that they will only work with specific browsers. Effectively, this is saying that users of other browsers are not wanted. Business sites that limit access to certain browsers are effectively saying that they only want a certain clientele.

Furthermore, users browse the web in a variety of ways. Not everyone uses a fullscreen browser on a desktop. Browsing on mobile devices is becoming more popular. Failing to code for other browsers also discriminates against users with disabilities, who may be limited to text only browsers.

Cari Burstein is not arguing for boring or limited sites, but the application of graceful degradation whereby, for example, if a user has a non-CSS compliant browser the site is still fully navigable and viewable (just maybe not looking as pretty, or with quite the layout the designer intended). The site includes buttons to link back to show support, as well as a full and useful Accessible Design Guide.

Related concepts: effective internet communication combines technical and communicative competence; the invisibility of difference; human-computer interfaces; frames: the information-display challenge.

Schler, J., Koppel, M., Argamon, S., Pennebaker, J. (2005). Effects of Age and Gender on Blogging. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 from http://www.cs.biu.ac.il/~koppel/papers/springsymp-blogs-07.10.05-final.pdf

In this study the researchers examined all the blogger.com blogs on a specific day (in 2004) and analysed those blogs to ascertain differences in blogging style and language across genders and age ranges. The researchers note that their findings support the idea that “female writing tends to emphasize what Biber calls “involvedness”, while male writing tends to emphasize “information”.” A number of distinguishing features are noted: female bloggers “use more pronouns and assent/negations words”, more blog neologisms, and fewer hyperlinks than males. Male bloggers “use more articles and prepositions.”. These frequencies were also found to change for older age ranges. The authors also provide some word frequency charts showing preferences for various words across gender and age.

The authors then provide a mathematical model for assessing blog pages in order to determine gender and age of the blogger with results, using both content and style, ranging from 96% accuracy down to 76.2% accuracy.

While it is clear that bloggers tend to blog about what concerns them the most (male bloggers in the 20s range, for example, blog about study) it is interesting to see how the message is reflected in the medium – not just the medium of blogging, but the style of expression is also revealing in itself, and how this information can also be used to gain insight into the blogger.

Related concepts: reading the difference between ‘surface’ metadata and ‘implied’ metadata; communication and information are related; identity and location.

Searching the Web. Retrieved 1 Jan 2008 from http://www.library.kent.edu/page/13613

This is a brief but comprehensive page detailing techniques for effective searching of the internet to better locate information and resources. The page is from Kent State University Library and Media Services, though it does indicate it has been reprinted from another library’s tipsheet. The original author is not specified, though a contact at Kent State is provided.

The page suggests various techniques for maximising the effectiveness of searches, including the use of Boolean logic, using less general search terms to narrow down searches, using a specific term, and being aware of specialty search engines and catalogues. It also provides a number of tips about understanding how the chosen search engine indexes sites, and how it interprets searches, in order to understand how best to use it as a tool (rather than always accepting the default, and using the most general search term).

While not being all-encompassing (and while not actually directing the user to any of the various search engines and catalogues) it provides enough information for the motivated user to investigate these tools themselves and learn how to use them better.

In terms of evaluating the page itself as an internet document, there seems no reason to distrust it. It is provided as part of the official pages of the university library and, while no author is provided, a contact is. The information is not controversial and, while other tips could be found by reading other sites, this is reasonable collection to fulfil the function of the page’s title. While no other sites link directly to this page, Google returns 332 links to the Library site itself.

In summary, this provides, as it says, a handy list of tips to follow until these steps become automatic. For any user struggling with Google and its defaults, this would be very useful.

Related concepts: reading the difference between ‘surface’ metadata and ‘implied’ metadata; the relationship of data to meta-data; hypertext: links or structure?; virtually a library?

World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 28 Nov 2007 from http://www.w3.org/

The central source for web standards, concentrating on coding and accessing – all the stuff going on in the background for your browser to work, as well as a forum for publicising and discussing emerging technologies. If you’re looking for a specific option or tag, for example, it will be found here in full. The text can be, at times, a little too much if you’re looking for only one bit of information, but it’s a good place to start, and the site also covers developing technologies, such as the mobile internet.

While there is no obligation for anyone to adhere to these standards, these form the backbone of how the WWW functions and, with the imprimatur of Tim Berners-Lee as Director, there is strong reason to be aware of what is happening at this site.

Also useful as a reference site as well, particularly in terms of all aspects of coding web pages correctly and efficiently. While web browsers, in their idiosyncratic way, interpret the web differently, unless the published standards are followed as much as possible then accessibility and reliability diminish.

This site is essential for any web developer, at least as a starting point (the documents can be, understandably, overly technical at times), and also important for those interested in participating in the future of the web.

Related concepts: the relationship of data to meta-data; cyberspace is informationally created ‘space’; human-computer interfaces; hypertext: links or structure?

MODULE 4

Burkeman, O. (2007). From Amis to Zeppelin, what your web searches reveal [The Guardian]. Retrieved 19 Dec 2007 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/dec/29/google.searchengines

This article reviews the year in terms of John Battelle’s idea of a “database of intentions” or, in other words, the cultural ramifications of internet searches in themselves. Quoting Battelle, “this artefact can tell us extraordinary things about who we are and what we want as a culture”, the author considers recent internet searches as a means of identifying concerns (though it should be noted that, strictly speaking, these searches only identify the cultural obsessions of the internet-connected, and these do not necessarily translate to interests of those without such connectivity in the same societies, let alone in societies with little or no internet access).

Focussing on Google Trends, the author does point out limitations of such a service (the numbers are approximate, and no indication of scale but only relative popularity is provided). Burkeman also raises the intriguing possibility that changes in search patterns can predict future behaviour, not just current interests, citing examples from the plausible (searching for a politician’s name might indicate a voting interest in that politician) to the less plausible (searching for a brand of stereo might indicate an interest in buying the same – such a trend would probably be difficult to pick up since the sample size would be far smaller).

The issues raised, however, are far from trivial, and indicate how the internet is not just about finding information, but the metainformation involved in that process as well, the data we can obtain about data.

Related concepts: permanent emphemerality; cyberspace is informationally created ‘space’; the persistence of history.

Johnson, T J. & Kaye, B K. (2004). Wag the Blog: How Reliance on Traditional Media and the Internet Influence Credibility Perceptions of Weblogs Among Blog Users [J&MC Quarterly Vol. 81.No,3 ]. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 from http://www.blogresearch.com/articles/JOHNSON_&_KAYE_2004.pdf

This paper looks at the credibility of blogs, as opposed to the internet in general. Conducted in 2004, it is somewhat limited in using a sample of 3,757 self selected respondents (the authors point out the difficulty of selecting a truly random sample) from a variety of blogs and mailing lists. It is not indicated how many were generated from each source, nor what controls were in place to prevent multiple responses. The majority of respondents where white, male and highly educated.

Approximately three quarters found blogs “moderately to very credible” and rated them higher than traditional news sources such as television, radio and papers, as well as placing them in front of online news sources. In discussing this, the authors state one reason is that users feel blogs deal with issues at greater length than other media and that blog readers actually feel bias is a virtue (in the same way talkback radio hosts are often presented). “Blog readers are seeking out information to support their views”. The authors therefore suggest that blogs are the online equivalent of talkback radio, with its strongly opinionated views and user feedback.

The main failing of this paper is that selecting users of blogs who are motivated enough to respond to a survey is likely to find users who prefer blogs as an information source, thus skewing the data. With this major caveat in mind, the paper does provide some thoughtful insights into the nature and popularity of blogs (at the time of the paper, it is stated that “only 17% of Internet users have ever visited a blog” though this number is presumably higher now). It would be interesting to survey those who avoid blogs, or prefer other sources of information.

Related concepts: communication and information are related; metaphors of use and communication differentiation; active communication generates identity awareness.

Bibliography

Abrams, D. & Baecker, R. (1997). How People Use WWW Bookmarks. Retrieved 16 Jan 2008 from http://www.sigchi.org/chi97/proceedings/short-talk/da.htm
Burkeman, O. (2007). From Amis to Zeppelin, what your web searches reveal [The Guardian]. Retrieved 19 Dec 2007 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/dec/29/google.searchengines
Burstein, C D. (2006). Viewable with Any Browser. Retrieved 19 Dec 2007 from http://www.anybrowser.org/campaign/
Cunliffe, R. (2006). Investigating the Use and Usefulness of Instant Messaging in an Elementary Statistics Course. Retrieved 18 Dec 2007 from http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications/17/6E4_CUNL.pdf
Dodge, M (2004). An Atlas of Cyberspaces. Retrieved 3 Dec 2007 from http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/
Durst, R C., Feighery, P D., Scott, K L. Why not use the Standard Internet Suite for the Interplanetary Internet?. Retrieved 15 Jan 2008 from http://www.ipnsig.org/reports/TCP_IP.pdf
Ebbs, G & Horey, J (1995). The Australian Internet Book (2nd ed.). Woodslane Press, NSW.
Internet History. (1992) Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 from http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/
Johnson, T J. & Kaye, B K. (2004). Wag the Blog: How Reliance on Traditional Media and the Internet Influence Credibility Perceptions of Weblogs Among Blog Users [J&MC Quarterly Vol. 81.No,3 ]. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 from http://www.blogresearch.com/articles/JOHNSON_&_KAYE_2004.pdf
Kehoe, B P. (1992). Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner’s Guide to the Internet. Retrieved 3 Dec 2007 from http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_toc.html
Leiner, B M., Cerf, V G., Clark, D D., Kahn, R E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D C., Postel, J. Roberts, L G., Wolff, S. (2003). A Brief History of the Internet (3.32). Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 from http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml
Santovic, M (2007). Decoding Internet Attachments – A Tutorial. Retrieved 3 Dec 2007 from http://pages.prodigy.net/michael_santovec/decode.htm
Schler, J., Koppel, M., Argamon, S., Pennebaker, J. (2005). Effects of Age and Gender on Blogging. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 from http://www.cs.biu.ac.il/~koppel/papers/springsymp-blogs-07.10.05-final.pdf
Searching the Web. Retrieved 1 Jan 2008 from http://www.library.kent.edu/page/13613
Shiu, A. & Lenhart, A. (2004). How Americans use instant messaging. Retrieved 18 Dec 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Instantmessage_Report.pdf
World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 28 Nov 2007 from http://www.w3.org/

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